PPC stands for "Pay per click".
Google Ads (formerly Adword) are leaders in this, you can also advertise with Bing, Facebook and even Amazon.
Paying for traffic is one way to get instant results and traffic. It is important to do the sums first as it's quite easy to spend more than you are making.
Ecommerce type sites can have instant results from ads, long cycle selling and branding take longer and are difficult to quantify the results.
Ads are also a good way to research keywords that wouldn't naturally show up for your website, possibly finding new markets.
Cost effective advertising is a marriage between a website, placed ads and the search terms used. See QS
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