AMP stands for "Accelerated Mobile Pages".
AMP is sponsored by Google to improve the web experience for mobiles.
It does this by stripping out unnecessary code and using a special code set that can be cached (stored).
It also naturally formats better on almost any size and format of screen.
The result is fast down loading sites that format well.
There is no reason why it shouldn't apply to desktops as well. There are some limitations on special effects and fancy graphics, but most functional sites can run better and faster on it.
Check it out at the AMP project.
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